ECLAS 2012 CONFERENCE

THE POWER OF LANDSCAPE

19-22 September 2012, Warsaw, Poland

 

 

 

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There are different fieldtrips on September 22th

 

1. Vistula Blue Ribbon in Warsaw

2. Mazovian Landscapes – Landscapes of F. Chopin: past, present and future

3. Historical parks: Nieborów, Arkadia, Żelazowa Wola

They are designed to meet different interests of our guests. You are invited to take part of one of them. Please, read descriptions below. The cost of each field trip is 200 PLN, you can reserve the trip in conference registration form.

The fieldtrip ‘Vistula Blue Ribbon in Warsaw’ – main spots on the way...

 

Bielany Forest – the island of natural forest

These are remnants of fertile deciduous forests with oak (Quercus sp.), lime (Tilia cordata), maple (Acer), hornbeam (Carpinus) and also riparian forest with ash (Fraxinus) and elm (Ulmus). The undergrowth is very divers too and is represented by anemones (Anemone), buttercup (Ranunculus), hazel (Corylus avellana), hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna), elder (Sambucus nigra), spindle-tree (Euonymus) and others. This enclave of the natural forest is an important wildlife refuge as well. According to long-term research there are 85 bird species (65 breeding species), 10 reptile and amphibians species and mammals. The biggest one that lives there is a deer (c.a. 6-8 pieces). Besides the animated nature also the unanimated one is very interesting. This is the edge of the moraine plateau from Pleistocene glaciation. It is 15 – 20 m hight above Vistula River (the highest point is up to 37 m – in the Old Town). The relief of the plateau and the escarpment is diversified by gorges small river valleys (Vistula tributaries) and springs. Except the key ecological role this area is numbered among crucial elements of Warsaw cultural heritage. The monastery of Cameldolite was erected there in 17th century. The church and set of monks’ houses (eremy) have been retained until present time. Actually there is a Catholic University, which development is in progress. Thanks to that a huge campus is being built there.

 

Citadel the Heart of Warsaw Fortification System

The Citadel was erected in 1832 and was treated as the heart of the Warsaw Fortress built by the Russia Tsar Army in the second half of 19th and the very beginning of the 20th century. Poland had been partitioned then into three parts depending on Russia, Prussia and Austro-Hungary powers. Two rings fortress consisted of more then 30 forts. The natural environment had been used for their construction like Warsaw Escarpment, small rivers – the Vistula tributaries and their valleys, ground depression and wet ground. The first ring was located outside of previous Warsaw, and the second one in the inner city. Besides these elements, the fortress had well developed the road pattern, the embankment system and the pattern of open spaces kept free from any kind of development. The areas located next to the fortress had also limited possibility of development. Thanks to those strict rules established at that time a vast Warsaw landscape had been kept from any investments. The Warsaw Fortification system had belonged to army after regaining independence, and as military areas most of the forts were closed for public use.

 

 “green” Library – for ecology or social importance?

Four types of green areas have been designed in the Garden of the New Library by Irena Bajerska (2002). They differ in composition and localization. Three of them have been placed on the lower level. The first type creates a linking zone between the library building and the second part of the garden – represented by wide green open space arranged as the space for native vegetation. The third one, the narrow strip of land, encloses the garden.

The fourth part is located on the upper level on the roof of the library building. It has been divided into five smaller gardens that differ in moods, colours, patterns and smells. As the result the golden, silver, carmine, blue and green gardens have been designed. They have been linked by foot-bridges, pergolas and foot-paths.

 

The Vistula River banks are very diversed - from the almost natural one, through developed but nowadays abandoned, to regulated one. The first type of the mentioned banks stretches mostly on the right (east) side of the Vistula river. The native vegetation dominates there with: willow (Salix) and poplar (Populus). This area is flooded almost each year. Thanks to this natural process it plays very important functions: hydrological (self-purification) and ecological (wildlife refuge e.g. for beavers, herons etc).

The example of the previously developed waterfront - the Praga Harbour - is located on the right side of the river. A clear system of docks and high quaysides have been retained there, as well as the 19th century tenement houses, a small factory, and a less accessible wet overgrown. This place has been the point of interest of the investors since the early 90s (Warsaw Past, Present and Future 1997).

Left (west) side of Vistula river is an example of the waterfront designing, where the connection between Warsaw and Vistula does not exist, apart from bridges and the new promenade linking the library building and the river’s bank (still under construction). Small part of this waterfront has been used as a place for summer pubs for last few years.

The problem how to develop the Vistula river banks has been under debate for years, and still it is not solve.

 

Czerniakowskie Lakenatural reserve versus swimming pool

The biggest oxbow lake in Warsaw (15 ha). Wrongly built drainage system in the late 70s nearby the lake caused the disconnection of the hydrological system based on streams, canals and another lakes in this part of Warsaw.

 

 “Ecological” residential district – the proposal for the 21st century?

Wilanów District, southern Warsaw, on the left side if the Vistula river, between Vistula bed and Wilanówka River (Vistula’s tributary), on the vast area classified as air ventilation wedge.

An example of the new neighbourhood, which is developed on the post-agrarian areas. Each of the separate settlements reflects precisely the previous structure of the arable land, because the pieces of land were usually bought by the developer directly from farmers.

 

Wilanów Park – history, beauty and nature

Localization: Wilanów District, southern Warsaw, on the left side if Vistula river, eleven kilometres from the city centre.

The Wilanów Palace and Garden were constructed in the 17th century as a royal summer residence. Its development took number of years and depended on the owners. Garden’s  layout was altered several times through that period. Started from Italian-French garden with fountains, sculptures and grottoes, at the back of the palace, and in front of it with a bipartite courtyard (Cydzik, Fijałkowski 1975). One century later the garden was redeveloped and extended into a late-Baroque one, and the previous royal granger was transformed into Romantic English-Chinese park. Next alterations were made in 19th century when the area of the garden was extended far from the Wilanów Lake, and Morysin – an extensive English park was established. A lot of Romantic sculptures had been added then. Next buildings had been erected as well, like neo-Gothic gallery (one of the first Polish public museum), Italian neo-Renaissance riding school and coach house (Cydzik, Fijałkowski 1975). At the beginning of the 20th century there were taken conservation and moderation works. But the WWII brought the palace devastation and almost total damage of the garden. After the war it became a commonwealth and was taken over by the National Museum. The Polish Government passed far-reaching resolution on the reconstruction of the Wilanów palace-garden layouts in 1954. That document made the realization of these tasks possible. The garden restoration could be managed thanks to the preserved old plans and paintings, which precisely described the late Baroque appearance of the garden, like the parterre flower-bed, the rows of pyramidal yews and fountain basins etc. (Cydzik, Fijałkowski 1975). The existing spatial elements of the extended parts of the garden (south and north) helped to retained their Romantic character. Morysin, previous English park, which had presented very important ecological values (the remnant of the riverside forests typical for the Vistula river), became a natural reserve in 1996.

 

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The fieldtrip 'Mazovian landscapes of F. Chopin: past, present, future' – main spots on the way...

 

A touring trip of Mazovia region, with emphasize on both cultural and natural values of the landscape. The route leads through Kampinoski National Park, one of the biggest national parks in Poland, located just on the outskirts of Warsaw and crosses the typical Mazovian landscapes with old willows, villages, but also new developments exemplifying an urban sprawl phenomena. The main historical / cultural spots on the way are: Żelazowa Wola, where F. Chopin was born, Brochów, where he was baptised. A walk in the Kampinoski National Park, to observe different habitats, from dunes to swamps, is a natural / ecological complement of the fieldtrip. 

 

ŻELAZOWA WOLA is a small village near Sochaczew, about 54 kilometres from Warsaw, most often associated with the Polish composer Fryderyk Chopin. Since 1802 the village and the manor belonged to Kacper and Ludwika Skarbek who employed Mikołaj Chopin (Fryderyk’s father) as a tutor for their children. The Chopin family lived in the eastern annex of the manor-house till 1810 when they have moved to Warsaw. The manor-house of the Skarbek family burned in a fire in 1812. During the first World War the western annex was also destroyed. In 1928 the Warsaw Society of Chopin’s House Friends and the Chopin’s Committee from Sochaczew bought still existing eastern annex and 3 hectares of surrounding land to commemorate the birthplace of Fryderyk Chopin. Between 1932 and 1937 Franciszek Krzywda-Polkowski, leading representative of the Polish modernistic garden art, designed a park which reflects the beauty of Mazovian landscape which was inspiration for the Chopin’s music. Presently the birthplace of Fryderyk Chopin and park in Żelazowa Wola is a Branch of the Fryderyk Chopin Museum in Warsaw.      

Further information at official website: http://chopin.museum/en/museum/zelazowa_wola/id/216   

 

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Historical parks: Nieborów, Arkadia, Żelazowa Wola – main spots on the way...

 

NIEBORÓW is located in Bzura river valley, about 10 km from Łowicz (80 kilometres for Warsaw) and is famous from well preserved palace-garden complex shaped in the 17th and the 18th century. Presently existing palace was built in 1695-97 for the cardinal and archbishop Michał Stefan Radziejowski by Dutch architect Tylman van Gameren. At the same time, in front of the southern facade of the palace regular garden was established. It was designed according to the French garden art school and consisted of a rectangular parterre, two symmetrical cabinets and orchards surrounded by tunnel-arbour. On the main palace axis wide alley planted with lime-trees with carpet lawn was planned. In the 18th century the garden was enlarged and the composition was developed. It gained new boskets, amphitheatre and orangery with a flower garden. On the western side of the garden the great canal in the shape of carpentry square was designed. Behind the canal a landscape park was established. The last owners of Nieborów were duke Michał Hieronim Radziwiłł and duchess Helena Przeździecka Radziwiłłowa. They employed two prominent architects Szymon Bogumił Zug and Henryk Ittar. Since 1945 Nieborów palace-garden complex is a part of the Warsaw National Museum.

 

 

ARKADIA is one of the best preserved 18th century examples of the Polish garden art. The park was established by the duchess Helena Przeździecka Radziwiłłowa in 1778 in Łupia village which belonged to Nieborów lands. Arkadia reflected former cult of unrestricted nature. As a leitmotif of the park composition the duchess has chosen Arcadian myth which incorporates symbols of love, beauty, happiness, fading and death. Most architectonic elements and park composition were designed by Szymon Bogumił Zug and Henryk Ittar. Initially Arkadia was shaped as a sentimental park, however, in 1800 the duchess introduced to the composition some changes which gave it a romantic character.      

Further information at official website: http://www.nieborow.art.pl/welcome.php?id=2

 

ŻELAZOWA WOLA is a small village near Sochaczew, about 54 kilometres from Warsaw, most often associated with the Polish composer Fryderyk Chopin. Since 1802 the village and the manor belonged to Kacper and Ludwika Skarbek who employed Mikołaj Chopin (Fryderyk’s father) as a tutor for their children. The Chopin family lived in the eastern annex of the manor-house till 1810 when they have moved to Warsaw. The manor-house of the Skarbek family burned in a fire in 1812. During the first World War the western annex was also destroyed. In 1928 the Warsaw Society of Chopin’s House Friends and the Chopin’s Committee from Sochaczew bought still existing eastern annex and 3 hectares of surrounding land to commemorate the birthplace of Fryderyk Chopin. Between 1932 and 1937 Franciszek Krzywda-Polkowski, leading representative of the Polish modernistic garden art, designed a park which reflects the beauty of Mazovian landscape which was inspiration for the Chopin’s music. Presently the birthplace of Fryderyk Chopin and park in Żelazowa Wola is a Branch of the Fryderyk Chopin Museum in Warsaw. 

     

 

Further information at official website: http://chopin.museum/en/museum/zelazowa_wola/id/216    

 

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Last actualization: June 18, 2012, conference@eclas2012.pl Contact Webmaster